F1 | Licenze, comportamento in pista e penalità

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Tutti i conducenti devono avere la Superlicenza della FIA per poter competere nel Campionato del Mondo di Formula 1 e l’unico modo per ottenerla è quella di soddisfare i rigorosi standard fissati dalla Federazione.

Ci sono regole severe per quanto riguarda il comportamento in pista e i commissari di gara hanno il potere di imporre sanzioni se un pilota commette un’irregolarità duranta una gara o una sessione di prove. Tra i comportamenti che possono essere penalizzati rientrano: la partenza anticipata, provocare un incidente evitabile, rallentare ingiustamente un altro pilota, non agevolare il processo di doppiaggio, superare il limite di velocità in corsia box e così via.

I piloti non possono lasciare il nastro d’asfalto che delimita la pista senza un giustificato motivo. Dunque, non si possono tagliare le chicane, sia in gara che durante il giro di ricognizione o di rientro, al fine di risparmiare tempo e carburante. Tra i comportamenti di guida da tenere sempre a mente, c’è quello di non cambiare più volte direzione per difendere la propria posizione. Se un pilota esce dalla traiettoria ideale per difendere la posizione, questo può rientrare verso la linea ideale solamente lasciando la larghezza di una vettura tra la propria auto e il bordo della pista, per evitare contatti con l’avversario.

I due tipi di penalità più comuni sono il “Drive Through” e lo “Stop & Go” di 10 secondi. Nel primo caso, il conducente deve rientrare nella corsia box e percorrerla con il limitatore di velocità inserito, attraversandola completamente senza fermarsi al proprio garage. A seconda della lunghezza della corsia box, questo può costare una notevole quantità di tempo. Il Drive Through, quindi, non può essere considerata uguale in tutte le piste: in alcune rappresenta una penalità più dura, in altre meno. Decisamente più dura è la penalità Stop & Go di 10 secondi. Il pilota deve entrare ai box, fermarsi nella propria piazzola e attendere dieci secondi prima di ripartire. Durante questo intervallo di tempo, i meccanici del pilota non sono autorizzati a lavorare sulla macchina o cambiare le gomme.

Nel caso in cui un pilota ottiene una penalità, ha tre giri per rientrare ai box e scontarla. In caso contrario, rischia l’esposizione della bandiera nera e, dunque, l’esclusione dalla gara. L’unica eccezione è possibile quando la penalità viene assegnata negli ultimi cinque giri della corsa. In questo caso, il conducente può continuare e completare la gara. Al termine, verranno aggiunti 20 secondi al suo tempo complessivo nel caso di Drive Through, oppure 30 secondi nel caso di Stop & Go.

In casi eccezionali, i commissari possono decidere di applicare sanzioni più severe. Per esempio, arretrare un pilota di un certo numero di posizioni nella gara successiva. Così, per esempio, se il conducente si qualifica in pole e ha una penalità di 10 posizioni da scontare, in gara prenderebbe il via dall’undicesima posizione. Gli steward possono anche imporre sanzioni a tempo (anche di 5 secondi per infrazioni meno gravi), dare una reprimenda ad un pilota, escluderlo dai risultati o squalificarlo per la gara successiva.

Qualsiasi pilota che riceve tre ammonizioni nel corso di una stagione riceverà automaticamente una penalizzazione in griglia di 10 posizioni per l’evento corrente o successivo. Questo avviene nel caso se solo due o più reprimende siano state inflitte per infrazioni di guida. Dal 2014, i commissari possono anche imporre punti di penalità sulla Superlicenza di un pilota. Se un conducente accumula 12 punti in un periodo di 12 mesi, la loro licenza sarà sospesa per una gara, conconseguente impossibilità di prendere parte alla corsa.

Estratto dal regolamento FIA su Licenze, comportamento in pista e penalità

4) LICENCES
4.1 All drivers, competitors and officials participating in the Championship must hold a FIA Super Licence. Applications for Super Licences must be made annually to the FIA through the applicant’s ASN.
4.2 In accordance with Article 16.3, the stewards may impose penalty points on a driver’s Super Licence. If a driver accrues 12 penalty points his licence will be suspended for the following Event, following which 12 points will be removed from the licence.
Penalty points will remain on a driver’s Super Licence for a period of 12 months after which they will be respectively removed on the 12 month anniversary of their imposition.

20) DRIVING
20.1 The driver must drive the car alone and unaided.
20.2 Drivers must use the track at all times. For the avoidance of doubt the white lines defining the track edges are considered to be part of the track but the kerbs are not.
A driver will be judged to have left the track if no part of the car remains in contact with the track.
Should a car leave the track the driver may re-join, however, this may only be done when it is safe to do so and without gaining any lasting advantage. At the absolute discretion of the race director a driver may be given the opportunity to give back the whole of any advantage he gained by leaving the track.
20.3 More than one change of direction to defend a position is not permitted. Any driver moving back towards the racing line, having earlier defended his position off-line, should leave at least one car width between his own car and the edge of the track on the approach to the corner.
20.4 Any driver defending his position on a straight, and before any braking area, may use the full width of the track during his first move, provided no significant portion of the car attempting to pass is alongside his. Whilst defending in this way the driver may not leave the track without justifiable reason.
For the avoidance of doubt, if any part of the front wing of the car attempting to pass is alongside the rear wheel of the car in front this will be deemed to be a ‘significant portion’.
20.5 Manoeuvres liable to hinder other drivers, such as deliberate crowding of a car beyond the edge of the track or any other abnormal change of direction, are not permitted.
20.6 As soon as a car is caught by another car which is about to lap it during the race the driver must allow the faster driver past at the first available opportunity. If the driver who has been caught does not allow the faster driver past, waved blue flags will be shown to indicate that he must allow the following driver to overtake.

16) INCIDENTS
16.1 “Incident” means any occurrence or series of occurrences involving one or more drivers, or any action by any driver, which is reported to the stewards by the race director (or noted by the stewards and subsequently investigated) which :
a) Necessitated the suspension of a race under Article 41.
b) Constituted a breach of these Sporting Regulations or the Code.
c) Caused a false start by one or more cars.
d) Caused a collision.
e) Forced a driver off the track.
f) Illegitimately prevented a legitimate overtaking manoeuvre by a driver.
g) Illegitimately impeded another driver during overtaking.
Unless it was completely clear that a driver was in breach of any of the above, any incidents involving more than one car will normally be investigated after the race.
16.2 a) It shall be at the discretion of the stewards to decide, upon a report or a request by the race director, if a driver or drivers involved in an incident shall be penalised.
b) If an incident is under investigation by the stewards a message informing all teams which driver or drivers are involved will be displayed on the official messaging system.
Provided that such a message is displayed no later than five minutes after the race has finished the driver or drivers concerned may not leave the circuit without the consent of the stewards.
16.3 The stewards may impose any one of the penalties below on any driver involved in an Incident:
a) A drive-through penalty. The driver must enter the pit lane and re-join the race without stopping.
b) A ten second time penalty. The driver must enter the pit lane, stop at his pit for at least ten seconds and then re-join the race.
If either of the two penalties above are imposed during the last three laps, or after the end of a race, Article 16.4b) below will not apply and 20 seconds will be added to the elapsed race time of the driver concerned in the case of a) above and 30 seconds in the case of b).
c) A time penalty.
d) A reprimand.
If any of the four penalties above are imposed they shall not be subject to appeal.
e) A drop of any number of grid positions at the driver’s next Event.
f) Exclusion from the results.
g) Suspension from the driver’s next Event.
16.4 Should the stewards decide to impose either of the penalties under Article 16.3a) or b), the following procedure will be followed :
a) The stewards will give written notification of the penalty which has been imposed to the competitor concerned and will ensure that this information is also displayed on the official messaging system.
b) From the time the stewards’ decision is notified on the official messaging system the relevant driver may cross the Line on the track no more than twice before entering the pit lane and, in the case of a penalty under Article 16.3b), proceeding to his garage where he shall remain for the period of the time penalty.
However, unless the driver was already in the pit entry for the purpose of serving his penalty, he may not carry out the penalty after the safety car has been deployed. The number of times the driver crosses the Line behind the safety car will be added to the maximum number of times he may cross the Line on the track.
Whilst a car is stationary in the pit lane as a result of incurring a time penalty it may not be worked on. However, if the engine stops it may be started after the time penalty period has elapsed.
c) When the time penalty period has elapsed the driver may rejoin the race.
d) Any breach or failure to comply with Articles 16.4b) or c) may result in the car being excluded.

17) PROTESTS AND APPEALS
17.1 Protests shall be made in accordance with the Code and accompanied by a fee of €2000.
17.2 Appeals may not be made against decision concerning the following :
a) Penalties imposed under Articles 16.3a), b) c) or d), including those imposed during the last five laps or after the end of a race.
b) Any drop of grid positions imposed under Article 28.
c) Any penalty imposed under Article 31.6.
d) Any decision taken by the stewards in relation to Article 36.1.
e) Any penalty imposed under Articles 38.4 or 42.3.

18) SANCTIONS
18.1 The stewards may inflict the penalties specifically set out in these Sporting Regulations in addition to or instead of any other penalties available to them under the Code.
18.2 Any driver who receives three reprimands in the same Championship season will, upon the imposition of the third, be given a ten grid place penalty at that Event. If the third reprimand is imposed following an Incident during a race the ten grid place penalty will be applied at the driver’s next Event.
The ten grid place penalty will only be imposed if at least two of the reprimands were imposed for a driving infringement

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