F1 | Parco Chiuso: cos’è e come funziona


Il Parco Chiuso è un’area chiusa e sicura nel paddock dove le vetture vengono sottoposte alle verifiche tecniche dei commissari. Le squadre devono lasciare le loro auto al parco chiuso entro 3 ore e 30 minuti dalla fine delle qualifiche il sabato, fino a cinque ore prima della partenza del giro di formazione.

Mentre in precedenza si parcheggiavano tutte le vetture in uno stesso garage, da qualche anno la regola del parco chiuso è leggermente cambiata. Le vetture, dopo le verifiche, vengono restituite alle squadre e posizionate all’interno del box. Un sistema di telecamere a circuito chiuso provvede a sorvegliare le monoposto, chiuse in un telo sigillato dalla FIA. Una guardia di sicurezza, dalla sala di controllo, avvisa la Federazione in caso di violazione.

Le monoposto, comunque, vengono considerate in regime di parco chiuso già dall’inizio delle qualifiche. In queste condizioni, le squadre possono svolgere sulle monoposto degli interventi limitati e specifici, sempre eseguite sotto l’occhio vigile di un Delegato Tecnico della FIA. Alle vetture può essere aggiunto o tolto del carburante, si possono cambiare gli pneumatici e spurgare i freni. Si può inoltre regolare l’incidenza dell’ala anteriore e poco altro. Questi controlli fanno in modo che le squadre non possano cambiare set-up di una vettura tra le qualifiche e la gara.

L’unica eccezione è prevista solamente quando c’è un cambiamento delle condizioni climatiche. Per esempio, una sessione di qualifica disputata sull’asciutto e una gara bagnata, o viceversa. In questo caso, la FIA darà alle squadre il permesso di effettuare ulteriori modifiche al set-up delle monoposto.

Estratto dal regolamento FIA sul regime di Parco Chiuso.

34.1 Every team must provide the FIA technical delegate with a suspension set-up sheet for both of their cars before each of them leaves the pit lane for the first time during the qualifying practice session.
34.2 Each car will be deemed to be in parc fermé from the time at which it leaves the pit lane for the first time during qualifying practice until the start of the race. Any car which fails to leave the pit lane during qualifying practice will be deemed to be in parc fermé at the end of Q1.
Between these times, other than when cars are returned to the parc fermé overnight, the following work may be carried out :
a) Engines may be started.
b) Fuel may be added or removed and a fuel breather fitted.
c) Wheels, wheel fasteners and tyres may be removed, changed or rebalanced and tyre pressures checked.
d) Spark plugs may be removed in order to carry out an internal engine inspection and cylinder compression checks.
e) Permitted heating or cooling devices may be fitted.
f) A jump battery may be connected and on board electrical units may be freely accessed via a physical connection to the car.
g) Charging and / or discharging of the KERS energy storage devices.
h) Removal of the KERS energy storage devices which, once marked by the FIA technical delegate, may be retained overnight by the team.
i) The main electrical battery and radio batteries may be changed.
j) The brake system may be bled.
k) Engine oil may be drained.
l) Compressed gases may be drained or added.
m) Fluids with a specific gravity less than 1.1 may be drained and/or replenished, however, fluids used for replenishment must conform to the same specification as the original fluid.
n) The aerodynamic set up of the front wing may be adjusted using the existing parts. No parts may be added, removed or replaced.
o) If the FIA technical delegate is satisfied that changes in climatic conditions necessitate alterations to the specification of a car, changes may be made to the air ducts around the front and rear brakes and radiator ducts. These changes may be made at any time after the message “CHANGE IN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS” is shown on the timing monitors, from this point the choice of air ducts around the front and rear brakes and radiator ducts is free and pitot tubes may be covered or uncovered, subject always to compliance with the relevant Technical Regulations.
p) Bodywork (excluding radiators) may be removed and/or cleaned.
q) Cosmetic changes may be made to the bodywork and tape may be added.
r) Any part of the car may be cleaned.
s) On board cameras, marshalling system components, timing transponders and any associated equipment may be removed, refitted or checked.
t) Any work required by the FIA technical delegate.
u) Changes to improve the driver’s comfort. In this context anything other than the adjustment of mirrors, seat belts and pedals may only be carried out with the specific permission of the FIA technical delegate.
The addition or removal of padding (or similar material) is also permitted but may only be carried out under supervision and, if required by the FIA technical delegate, must be removed before the post-race weighing procedure.
v) Drinking fluid for the driver may be added at any time, however, the capacity of the container for any such fluid must not exceed 1.5 litres.
w) Repair of genuine accident damage.
x) Any parts which are removed from the car in order to carry out any work specifically permitted above, or any parts removed to carry out essential safety checks, must remain close to it and, at all times, be visible to the scrutineer assigned to the relevant car.
Furthermore, any parts removed from the car in order to carry out any such work must be refitted before the car leaves the pit lane.
Any work not listed above may only be undertaken with the approval of the FIA technical delegate
following a written request from the team concerned. It must be clear that any replacement part a team wishes to fit is similar in mass, inertia and function to the original. Any parts removed will be retained by the FIA.
However, if a team wishes to change a part during the qualifying session and/or on the grid before the start of the race, this may be done without first seeking the permission of the technical delegate, provided it is reasonable for the relevant team to believe permission would be given if there was time to ask and the broken or damaged part remains in full view of the scrutineer assigned to the car at all times.
34.3 At the end of the qualifying practice at least six cars will be chosen at random to undergo further checks, once informed their car has been selected the team concerned must take the car to the parc fermé immediately.
34.4 Within three and a half hours of the end of the qualifying practice session all cars used during the session (or which were intended for use but failed to leave the pit lane) must be covered and ready for FIA seals to be applied in order to ensure that they remain secure until the following day.
For marketing purposes this deadline may be extended for one car from each competitor for a maximum of two hours by prior arrangement with the FIA technical delegate.
However, no work of any kind may be carried out on the car any later than three and a half hours after the end of the qualifying practice session.
Whilst cars are covered overnight they may be fitted with devices to keep them warm.
34.5 Five hours before the start of the formation lap the seals and covers may be removed but the cars will remain under parc fermé conditions until the start of the race.
34.6 A competitor may not modify any part on the car or make changes to the set-up of the suspension whilst the car is being held under parc fermé conditions. In the case of a breach of this Article the relevant driver must start the race from the pit lane and follow the procedures laid out in Article 38.2.
In order that the scrutineers may be completely satisfied that no alterations have been made to the suspension systems or aerodynamic configuration of the car (with the exception of the front wing) whilst in post-qualifying parc fermé, it must be clear from physical inspection that changes cannot be made without the use of tools.
34.7 One scrutineer will be allocated to each car for the purpose of ensuring that no unauthorised work is carried out whilst cars are being held under parc fermé conditions.
34.8 A list of parts replaced with the specific agreement of the FIA technical delegate whilst cars are being held under parc fermé conditions will be published and distributed to all teams prior to the race.

44.1 Only those officials charged with supervision may enter the post race parc fermé. No intervention of any kind is allowed there unless authorised by such officials.
44.2 When the parc fermé is in use, parc fermé regulations will apply in the area between the Line and the parc fermé entrance.
44.3 The parc fermé shall be secured such that no unauthorised persons can gain access to it.

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