F1 | Il fornitore unico di pneumatici

pneumatici

La Formula 1 dispone di un unico fornitore di pneumatici, con tutte le squadre che utilizzano le stesse gomme Pirelli. Ad ogni Gran Premio, ad ogni squadra vengono concesse due specifiche mescole (o composti) di gomme da asciutto. A meno che le condizioni dell’asfalto siano bagnate, i conducenti devono utilizzare entrambe le specifiche durante la gara. Le mescole sono differenziate visivamente dalla colorazione del fianco: SuperSoft (rosse), Soft (Gialle), Medium (Bianche) e Hard (Arancioni).

Durante il weekend di gara, ogni pilota ha a disposizione 12 set di pneumatici da asciutto (Sette della mescole ‘prime’ e cinque della più morbida ‘option’), più quattro set di gomme intermedie e tre set di gomme da bagnato. Dal 2014, il set aggiuntivo di gomme ‘prime’ può essere utilizzato durante i primi 30 minuti delle prove libere 1 e deve essere restituito al fornitore di pneumatici prima che inizi la seconda sessione di prove libere. Un ulteriore set di pneumatici ‘prime’ deve essere restituito prima dell’inizio delle Libere 2, mentre un set di option e uno di prime devono essere consegnati poco prima delle Libere 3 del sabato.

Questa procedura lascia otto set di pneumatici da asciutto (quattro per ogni specifica) per il resto della manifestazione, ma un set di ogni specifica deve essere restituito al fornitore di pneumatici prima dell’inizio della sessione di Qualifiche del sabato. Alla partenza della gara, le vetture che hanno partecipato alla Q3 devono obbligatoriamente iniziare la gara con gli stessi pneumatici utilizzati per realizzare il proprio tempo di qualifica.

In certi eventi, le squadre possono ricevere un ulteriore set di gomme ‘prime’ o ‘option’ per l’uso in una delle due prove libere del venerdì, al solo scopo di valutazione per lo sviluppo degli pneumatici da parte del fornitore unico.

Le squadre sono libere di utilizzare le gomme da bagnato a loro piacimento durante le qualifiche e la gara. Tuttavia, durante le sessioni di prove precedenti, possono essere utilizzati solo se la pista è stta dichiarata bagnata dal direttore di gara. Se le Prove Libere del venerdì sono entrambe dichiarate bagnate, le squadre dovranno consegnare un set di pneumatici al fornitore unico prima dell’inizio delle Qualifiche del sabato.

A meno che non siano stati utilizzati pneumatici da bagnato, i piloti devono utilizzare entrambe le mescole da asciutto durante la gara. Chi non lo farà verrà escluso dalla corsa.
Nel caso la gara venga interrotta senza possibilità di ripresa, chi non ha utilizzato entrambe le mescole riceverà una penalità di 30 secondi sul tempo di gara.

Tutti gli pneumatici sono dotati di un codice a barre all’inizio di ogni fine settimana, in modo che la FIA possa monitorare costantemente il loro utilizzo e tracciare continuamente le gomme, in modo da garantire che nessuna squadra possa eludere le regole.

Estratto del regolamento FIA riguardo agli pneumatici

25) SUPPLY OF TYRES IN THE CHAMPIONSHIP AND TYRE LIMITATION DURING THE EVENT
25.1 Supply of tyres:

A single tyre manufacturer has been chosen by the FIA for the 2014, 2015 and 2016 seasons following an invitation for tenders to supply tyres to all the cars entered in Championship Events for the duration of these seasons. A single tyre manufacturer will be chosen by the FIA for subsequent seasons following an invitation for tenders to supply tyres to all the cars entered in Championship Events for the duration of such subsequent seasons.
The appointed tyre supplier must undertake to provide:
a) Two specifications of dry-weather tyre at each Event, each of which must be of one homogenous compound and visibly distinguishable from one another when a car is on the track. At certain Events one additional specification of dry-weather tyre may be made available to all teams for evaluation purposes following a recommendation to the FIA from the appointed tyre supplier. Teams will be informed about such an additional specification at least one week before the start of the relevant Event.
b) One specification of intermediate tyre at each Event which must be of one homogenous compound.
c) One specification of wet-weather tyre at each Event which must be of one homogenous compound.
25.2 Quantity of tyres during an Event:
a) Except under Article 25.1(a) and d) below, no driver may use more than twelve sets of dry-weather tyres, seven of “prime” specification and five of “option” specification.
b) Except under e) below, no driver may use more than four sets of intermediate tyres and three sets of wet-weather tyres.
c) A set of tyres will be deemed to comprise two front and two rear tyres all of which must be of the same specification.
d) Following a recommendation to the FIA from the appointed tyre supplier, one additional set of either “prime” or “option” specification tyres may be made available to all drivers. Teams will be informed about such an additional set at least one week before the start of the relevant Event.
e) If either P1 or P2 are declared wet one additional set of intermediate tyres will be made available to all drivers. Under such circumstances, one used set of intermediate tyres must be returned to the tyre supplier before the start of P3.
25.3 Control of tyres:
a) The outer sidewall of all tyres which are to be used at an Event must be marked with a unique identification.
b) Other than in cases of force majeure (accepted as such by the stewards of the meeting), all tyres intended for use at an Event must be presented to the FIA technical delegate for allocation prior to the end of initial scrutineering.
c) At any time during an Event, and at his absolute discretion, the FIA technical delegate may select alternative dry-weather tyres to be used by any team or driver from among the stock of tyres the appointed supplier has present at the Event.
d) A competitor wishing to replace one unused tyre by another identical unused one must present both tyres to the FIA technical delegate.
e) The use of tyres without appropriate identification may result in a grid position penalty or exclusion from the race.
25.4 Use of tyres:
Tyres will only be deemed to have been used once the car’s timing transponder has shown that it has left the pit lane.
a) Twelve sets of dry-weather tyres will be allocated by the FIA technical delegate to each nominated driver seven of “prime” specification and five of “option” specification.
One set of “prime” specification may only be used during the first 30 minutes of P1 and must be returned to the tyre supplier before the start of P2.
One further set of “prime” specification must be returned to the tyre supplier before the start of P2 and one further set of “prime” specification and one set of “option” specification before the start of P3. If P1 and P2 are both declared wet one set of the tyres normally returned before the start of P3 may be retained by each driver but must be returned to the tyre supplier before the start of the qualifying practice session.
If Article 25.2(d) is invoked an additional set of either “prime” or “option” specification tyres will be available to each nominated driver for use during P1 and P2. This set of tyres must be returned to the tyre supplier before the start of P3.
If an additional driver is used (see Article 19.1(b) he must use the tyres allocated to the nominated driver he replaced.
b) If an additional specification of dry-weather tyre is made available in accordance with Article 25.1(a) two sets of these tyres will be allocated to each driver for use during P1 and P2. Any such tyres must be returned to the tyre supplier before the start of P3.
c) From the remaining dry-weather tyres one set of each specification must be returned to the tyre supplier before the start of the qualifying practice session.
d) Prior to the start of the qualifying practice session intermediate and wet-weather tyres may only be used after the track has been declared wet by the race director, following which intermediate, wet or dry-weather tyres may be used for the remainder of the session.
e) At the start of the race each car which took part in Q3 must be fitted with the tyres with which the driver set his grid time. This will only be necessary if dry-weather tyres were used to set the grid time and if dry-weather are used at the start of the race.
Any such tyres damaged during Q3 will be inspected by the FIA technical delegate who will decide, at his absolute discretion, whether any may be replaced and, if so, which tyres they should be replaced with.
A penalty under Article 16.3(b) will be imposed on any driver whose car is not fitted with the tyres with which he set his grid time (except if damaged tyres have been replaced with the approval of the FIA technical delegate).
f) Unless he has used intermediate or wet-weather tyres during the race, each driver must use at least one set of each specification of dry-weather tyres during the race.
If the race is suspended and cannot be re-started, thirty seconds will be added to the elapsed time of any driver who was unable to use both specifications of dry-weather tyre during the race. However, any driver who completes the race without using both specifications of dry-weather tyre will be excluded from the race results.
g) If the race is started behind the safety car because of heavy rain (see Article 40.16), or resumed in accordance with Article 42.5(a), the use of wet-weather tyres until the safety car returns to the pits is compulsory.
A penalty under Article 16.3(b) will be imposed on any driver who does not use wet weather tyres whilst the safety car is on the track at such times.
25.5 Testing of tyres:
a) Tyres supplied to any competitor at any time may not be used on any rig or vehicle (other than an F1 car on an F1 approved track, at the exclusion of any kind of road simulator), either Team owned or rented, providing measurements of forces and/or moments produced by a rotating full size F1 tyre, other than uniquely vertical forces, tyre rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag.
b) Tyres may be used on a test rig providing forces control and monitoring by F1 rim manufacturers for the sole purpose of proof testing their products.

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